Turkey, a vast country, does not fall under one climatic zone. Country’s diverse regions are part of different climatic zones, which are defined based on factors such as location, surface relief, surface wind and upper air circulation. The entire country can be divided into four climatic zones namely, Mediterranean, Continental, Steppe and Oceanic climate.
Weather of Turkey across the coastal region contrasts with that prevailing in the inlands. The coastal region, comprising of areas of Marmara and Aegean Sea, displays a Mediterranean climate featuring cool, rainy winters and hot, moderately dry summers. Records state that the annual precipitation in these areas ranges between 580 and 1,300 millimetres. One can experience less rainfall in the eastern side of this region. Winter temperature of Turkey in this region may drop down to freezing point for areas situated on higher altitudes.
The oceanic type of climate can be experienced in the areas enveloping the Black Sea. Moderate type of weather is prevalent, featuring warm and not hot summers as well as cool and not cold winters. As precipitation is evenly dispersed throughout the year, this climatic zone lacks a dry season. Owing to this, the cities of Samsun and Trabzon receive highest amount of rainfall in Turkey. Precipitation is most common in the eastern part of the Black Sea region. With an average annual rainfall of 2200 millimetres, climate of Turkey across this region remains cool all year long.
Hot humid summers and extremely cold winters are the features of the steppe type of climate of Turkey. It is prevalent in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and encompasses a larger part of Ankara, the capital city. The interior of Turkey experience a continental climate with distinct seasons.
Though divided into different climatic zones, the climate in Turkey primarily comprises four distinct seasons, which is winter, summer, spring and autumn. November to February is the winter time in almost all regions of Turkey. During this season, days are generally cold with average temperature in Turkey ranging between 0°C to 10°C. Except the eastern part, winters in Turkey are milder. Eastern part of Turkey, encounters heavy snowfall from mid-November until the end of March. May and June are the summer months of Turkey. The average temperature of Turkey in the summer months is around 32°C, but in eastern region the maximum temperature can be far below the average. Spring and autumn are considered to be the best seasons of Turkey owing to the pleasant weather conditions prevalent during this time.